Constitution of the Principality of Vlachia

Preamble
Chapter I: The Principality
Chapter II: The Prince
Chapter III: The General Rights and Obligations
Chapter IV: The Supreme Council
Chapter V: The Government
Chapter VI: The Courts
Chapter VII: The Community and Administration
Chapter VIII: Maintenance of the Constitution
Chapter IX: Final Provisions

PREAMBLE

The Vlachs are a historic European people which originate from the south of France i. e. Languedoc and Provance. This region was known in Antiquity as Gaul of Narbonne (Latin: Gallia Narbonensis) and was a Roman province. The name Vlach etymologically is derived from the Celtic tribal confederacy Volcae. This people are mentioned by many ancient historians like Gaius Julius Ceaser, Titus Livius Patavinius, Strabo and Justin. The Celts of the Volcae tribe, the ancestors of the Vlachs made their campaign of conquest in 280 BC invading Illyria and Macedonia, while in 279 BC they attacked the Greek cities in alliance with another Celtic tribe called Tectosages. This campaign of conquest continued to Anatolia where a region was called after them Galatia (Ancient Greek: Γαλατία) which in Greek meant Gaul. It is precisely to these Gaels that the Epistle of the New Testament was sent to by St. Paul the Apostle and St. Jerome the Dalmatian recorded that they spoke a Celtic language in the 4th century AD during his pilgrimage to the Holy Land. After these conquests, a part of the conquering newcomers took the south od Dacia (modern-day Romania) and it was from them, the Volcae tribe, that this region was called Wallachia from where the Vlachs will as a people migrate across Illyria, Thrace, Macedonia and Greece. The records from the early Middle Ages are scarce, but there are rare sources which mention a people living on mountains and is engaged in animal husbandry. On the other hand, the region Wales in Great Britain is by connected by name to the same Celtic tribe Volcae. During the Middle Ages there existed many noble houses that had a Vlach origin like Sanković, Vlašić, Morovlašić, Kutlović, Tasovčić, Miloradović, etc. The freedom and rights of the Vlachs were confirmed on several places while the legal basis for the Principality of Vlachia is one such document called ‘Law for the Vlachs of Cetina” from 1436 which was granted by the ban of Croatia and Dalmatia, Prince Ivan VI Frankopan († 1436) on the castle Klis. These right guaranteed the Vlach nobility freedom and rights to elect among themselves their princes, dukes and judges, while it was specifically stated neither Croats nor Serbs could judge them which is a confirmation of their independence as a ethnic community. His Illustrious Highness Jacob, Prince of the Vlachs, being the last confirmed descendant of Bulat Kustražić († 1440) from this document, is the only one that can claim a right to choose and be chosen and based on his personal right he establishes the Principality of Vlachia as a independent ethnic micro-state without territory which will exists as a sovereign subject in international law. This constitution describes the state which the prince founds with his personal noble right.

Chapter I: The Principality

Article 1

  1. The Principality of Vlachia is a state on a theocratic and direct democratic parliamentary basis which will serve its citizens so that they can live in freedom, peace and prosperity.
  2. The authority of the state is derived from the Triune God as revealed by the Holy Roman Church and the prince who serves his people by divine right and for whose welfare he answers to God. Authority will be exercised in accordance with the constitution and its provisions.

Article 2

  1. It is the duty of the state to represent the welfare of the citizens and state in relations to other states, confederacies and similar organizations.
  2. It is the duty of the state to issue laws and decrees which enable the people to live in freedom, peace and prosperity, especially the regulations which concern education, social security, health, transportation and the environment and regulations concerning the citizens.
  3. It is a duty of the state to ensure that the constitution, the laws and the decrees are observed. To serve this purpose the state will finance courts, the state prosecution authorities and the police.
  4. It is not the duty of the state to own or to administer institutions, which are active in education, social security, health, transportation or any other area. These institutions are to be owned and administered by local communities, private business, or private organizations.

Article 3

  1. To finance its activities, the state is entitled to all the revenues from indirect taxation such as value added tax, customs duties, or other duties where applicable. The citizens are entitled to tax sovereignty in respect of all direct taxation on individuals and legal entities, whereby the state has the authority to lay down the basic rules concerning direct taxation to avoid abuses and conflicts between the citizens.
  2. The state shall be sparing with its revenues and shall achieve each year surpluses which are to be distributed to the local communities in proportion to the number of their citizens. A portion of the surpluses may be distributed by the state according to the law in the form of educational vouchers to persons who are subject to compulsory school attendance.
  3. The state is not permitted to issue guarantees or to raise loans except in special situations, which are covered in law. Those laws are subject to referendum in accordance with Article 31. After ten years at the latest loans have to be repaid through surpluses of the state and guarantees cancelled.

Article 4

  1. Since the state is a sovereign subject in international law, every change in this situation must be made only by virtue of law. Individual citizens have a right to leave the state. The majority of citizens with voting rights shall decide about the initiation of proceedings for leaving the state. The procedure for withdrawal of citizenship can be regulated either through law or by state treaty on a case-to-case basis. In case of a state treaty a second vote shall take place after the treaty negotiations have been concluded.
  2. Any change of the state from a sovereign subject in international law to a territorial state requires a majority vote by the citizens with voting rights.

Chapter II: The Prince

Article 5

  1. The succession to the throne, hereditary in the Princely House, the coming of age of the hereditary prince as well as any guardianship which may be required, are determined by the Constitution of the Princely House of Bulat.

Article 6

  1. The prince is the head of state and shall exercise his sovereign authority in conformity with the provisions of this constitution and of the other laws.
  2. The prince as a person is not subject to judicial proceedings and is legally not responsible. The same applies to the member of the Princely House, who exercises in accordance with Article 11 the functions of head of state for the prince.

Article 7

  1. The prince shall represent the state in all its relations with foreign countries without prejudice to the necessary participation of the responsible government.
  2. Treaties by which national property is disposed of, rights of sovereignty or state prerogatives are disposed of, any new burden for the principality or its citizens which is imposed, or any obligation to the detriment of the rights of the citizens is contracted, shall not be valid, unless they have received the assent of the Supreme Council.

Article 8

  1. Every law, the budget, loans, taxes, and other state duties (Article 3) shall require the sanctions of the prince in order to be valid.
  2. In urgent cases the prince shall take the necessary measures by emergency decree for the security and welfare of the state. Emergency decrees cannot abolish the constitution as a whole or individual articles of the constitution, but can only restrict the application of certain articles of the constitution. Emergency decrees cannot restrict either the right of each person to live, the prohibition of torture and inhumane treatment, the prohibition of slavery and forced labor, or the rule of no punishment without law. In addition, the provisions of this Article, of Articles 5,12 and 47 as well as the law of the Princely House cannot be restricted by emergency decrees shall cease to be in force at the latest six months after they have been issued.
  3. The prince shall appoint judges in accordance with the provisions of this constitution (Article 39). A judge shall be granted personal, non-hereditary nobility once appointed to the office, which can be revoked by the prince.

Article 9

  1. The prince shall possess the prerogative of remitting, mitigating, or commuting sentences which have been legally pronounced and of terminating prosecutions which have been initiated.
  2. Only at the instigation of the Supreme Council shall the prince exercise his prerogative of remission or mitigation in favor of a member of the government sentenced on account of his official acts.

Article 10

Every successor to the throne of the Principality of Vlachia shall before receiving the oath of allegiance declare in a written document that he will govern the principality according to the constitution and the other laws.

Article 11

The prince may entrust the next heir apparent of his house who has attained majority with the exercise of the sovereign powers held by him as his representative should he be temporarily unable to perform his functions or in preparation for his succession.

Article 12

At least 5 percent of the citizens with voting rights may introduce, with the reason stated, a vote of no confidence in the prince. The Supreme Council must give a recommendation on this vote of no confidence at its next meeting and must put the vote of no confidence to a popular vote (Article 30). If the motion of no confidence is accepted by the popular vote, the prince has to be notified, so that the case can be dealt with in accordance with the law of the Princely House. Within six months the prince shall inform the Supreme Council of the decision taken in accordance with the law of the Princely House.

Chapter III: The General Rights and Obligations

Article 13

  1. All citizens shall be equal before the law. The public offices shall be equally open to them, subject to observance of the legal regulations.
  2. There shall be equality of rights between the male and female sexes.
  3. The law regulates the acquisition and loss of citizenship.
  4. The rights of individuals with no citizenship shall be determined in the first instance by treaties or in the absence of such on the basis of reciprocity.

Article 14

  1. Every citizen shall be able to acquire property of any description, provided that he observes the detailed legal regulations relating to such matters.
  2. Individuals with citizenship shall be bound to observe the laws of the state and shall be entitled to the protection afforded by the constitution and the other laws.

Article 15

  1. All citizens shall be entitled to civic rights in conformity with the provisions of this constitution.
  2. All citizens who have completed their eighteenth year and whose voting right has not been revoked, may exercise all political rights in matters of the state and citizenship.

Article 16

  1. Personal liberty, the immunity of ownership and the inviolability of the post are guaranteed.
  2. Except in the cases specified by law and in the manner thus prescribed, no person may be arrested or detained in custody, no houses, letters or written matter, or persons may be searched, and no letters or written matter may be seized.
  3. Persons arrested unlawfully or demonstrably innocent and those proved innocent after conviction shall be entitled to full compensation from the state as determined by the courts. Whether and to what extent the state has a right of recourse against third parties in such cases shall be regulated by law.

Article 17

  1. Nobody may be deprived of his proper judge; special tribunals may not be instituted.
  2. Nobody may be threatened with or subjected to penalties other then those provided by the law.
  3. Accused persons shall have the right to defense in all penal proceedings.

Article 18

  1. The inviolability of private property is guaranteed.
  2. Where necessary in the public interest, property of any kind may be compulsory assigned or subjected to an encumbrance, against appropriate compensation, the amount of which in cases of dispute shall be determined by the courts.
  3. The procedure for expropriation shall be regulated by the law.

Article 19

Trade and industry shall be free within the limits of the law; the extent to which exclusive commercial and industrial privileges may be admissible for specified periods of time shall be regulated by law.

Article 20

Roman Catholicism being the official state religion, is the only legal religion allowed by the state, with an exception to Orthodox Christians with whom the state wishes to reunite as it was in the beginning of Christianity. No cults, sects nor false religions will be tolerated nor will any other creed be given right to exist by the state except the one, true, Catholic and apostolic faith in the Triune God by which all are saved.

Article 21

  1. Every person shall be entitled to freely express his opinion and to communicate ideas by word of mouth or in writing, print or pictures if it is within the limits of Christian law and morality.
  2. The right of free association and assembly is guaranteed within the limits prescribed by law.

Chapter IV: The Supreme Council

Article 22

The Supreme Council represents the people in which in accordance with the constitution the people do not decide themselves. The Supreme Council has the following rights.

  1. To participate in the work of legislation and in the conclusion of treaties.
  2. To propose to the prince the members of government and withdraw its confidence from them.
  3. To participate in the appointment of judges.
  4. To approve the state budget and loans (Article 3) as well as taxes and duties (Article 3)
  5. To control the whole state administration. The Supreme Councils right of control does not extend either to the judgements of the courts or to the activities allocated to the prince.

Article 23

  1. The Supreme Council consists of twenty representatives who shall be elected by the people by universal, equal, exclusively public and direct suffrage which are divided into four houses. The mandates shall be distributed among electoral groups, which have obtained at least 4 percent of the valid votes cast in the state as a whole.
  2. The development of society depends on four main virtues: the honesty of the great, the knowledge of the wise, the valor of the brave and the prayers of the just – and a ruler to unify and embody them all in purpose and meaning.
  3. Therefore the Principality of Vlachia political system is divided into four houses, which are the following: I) House of the Great (legalists), House of the Wise (archivists), House of the Brave (strategists) and the House of the Just (spiritualists). The legalists oversee, the archivists foresee, the strategists accomplish and the spiritualists guide.
  4. Each electoral group has the right to nominate for each of its representatives one substitute who shall deputize for the representative in case he cannot take part in a meeting of the Supreme Council. The representative who cannot participate must inform the head of each house of the Supreme Council in due time.
  5. Members of the government and the courts cannot be simultaneously members of the Supreme Council.
  6. Detailed regulations regarding the conduct of the election shall be laid down in a special law.

Article 24

Within four weeks after the election of the Supreme Council the prince shall convene and open the Supreme Council’s constituent assembly. At this constituent assembly the Supreme Council will elect the heads of the houses and their appointed deputies. Further meetings of the Supreme Council shall be convened by the heads of the four houses and their deputies. Apart from the prince, the heads of the houses of the Supreme Council and their deputies have the right to convene the Supreme Council should at least eight of them require it.

Article 25

The representatives shall be elected for four years. The prince or the citizens respectively have the right to dissolve the Supreme Council and to order new elections. These have to take place within two months after the Supreme Council has been dissolved. Five percent of the citizens have the right to put forward a proposal for a popular vote to dissolve the Supreme Council.

Article 26

  1. No representative may be arrested while the Supreme Council is in session without the assent of that body unless he is apprehended in flagrante delicto.
  2. In the latter case, the arrest and the grounds, therefore, must be notified forthwith to the Supreme Council, which shall decide whether the arrest is to be sustained. All documentation relating to the case must be placed immediately at the disposal of the Supreme Council, if it so requests.
  3. If a representative of the Supreme Council is arrested at a time when the Supreme Council is not in session the heads of the houses must be notified forthwith and informed at the same time of the grounds for the arrest.

Article 27

  1. All members of the Supreme Council shall swear the following oath to God and the Prince in the opening of the Supreme Council: In the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost. Amen. I, __________ a humble servant of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ and a faithful servant of the reigning prince, His Illustrious Highness __________ Prince of the Vlachs, swear in good faith on the four holy Gospels and the salvation of my eternal soul, that I will follow the state constitution of the Principality of Vlachia and be a faithful child of the Holy Mother Church, with no hidden intentions and to the best of my abilities help the development and welfare of all the citizens, not helping a friend nor retaliating against an enemy. So help me God and his Holy Mother, the Holy Virgin conceived without sin and assumed into heaven, our God-bearer Mary to whose Immaculate Heart I completely consecrate myself and into whose merciful hands I give myself praying that she disposes of me and all that I possess to the eternal glory and praise of the Most Holy Trinity. Amen.
  2. The members of the Supreme Council shall vote solely in accordance with their oath and their convictions. They shall never be made to answer for their votes; for their utterances at sittings of the Supreme Council or its committees, they shall be responsible to the Supreme Council alone and can never be arraigned before a court of justice in respect thereof. The exercise of disciplinary powers shall be regulated by rules and procedure to be issued hereafter.
  3. The Supreme Council shall adopt its rules of procedure by resolution and with due regards to the provisions of this constitution. These rules shall regulate, among other matters, the formation of different commissions of the Supreme Council, the elections and votes in the Supreme Council and the remuneration of the representatives.

Article 28

The Supreme Council shall scrutinize the validity of the election of its members and of the election as such on the basis of the election records and if applicable, of the decisions of the constitutional court. Complaints relating to elections shall be referred to the constitutional court.

Article 29

  1. The right of initiative with regards to legislation belongs to: I) the Prince II) the Supreme Council III) the government IV) the citizens with voting rights when at least 5 percent of them present such an initiative.
  2. If the initiative involves public expenditure, whether in a single sum or in payments extending over a longer period, such an initiative shall only be discussed by the Supreme Council if it is accompanied by proposals for providing the necessary funds.
  3. Initiatives which are in accordance with this constitution shall be debated if possible, at the next session of the Supreme Council, but at the latest after six weeks.

Article 30

  1. Laws, treaties (Article 7), loans, taxes and duties (Article 3) passed by the Supreme Council shall be submitted to a popular vote if the Supreme Council so decides, or if not less then 5 percent of the citizens with voting rights submit a proposal to the effect within six weeks of the official publication of the resolution of the Supreme Council.
  2. Resolutions of the Supreme Council subject to a referendum shall be submitted to the prince for sanction after the referendum has been held or after the statutory period of six weeks within which a petition for a referendum may be submitted has expired without such action.
  3. If the Supreme Council rejects a law which has been submitted to it through the procedure of the popular initiative (Article 29) the said law shall be submitted to a referendum within six weeks. The Supreme Council has a right to submit to the people a counter-proposal. The popular vote replaces the otherwise necessary resolution by the Supreme Council. The acceptance or rejection of the resolution on the enactment of the law shall be decided by an absolute majority of the valid votes recorded in the whole state.
  4. Further detailed regulations regarding the initiative and the referendum shall be issued in the form of a law.

Article 31

  1. With regards to the state administration, the government shall submit to the Supreme Council for examination and approval the preliminary estimates of all expenditure and revenues for the coming administrative year, accompanied by proposals for the taxation which is to be levied.
  2. In the first half of each administrative year, the government shall submit to the Supreme Council an exact statement relating to the preceding year showing the manner in which revenues approved and collected were applied for the purposes set out in the preliminary estimates, with the provision, however, that if the latter has been exceeded on justifiable grounds the Supreme Council must give its approval and that in the absence of justification the government shall be answerable.
  3. The government shall be entitled to incur expenditure of such an urgent character not provided for in the preliminary estimates, subject to the same conditions as above.
  4. Economies effected in the case of individual items of the preliminary estimates may not be used to cover excess expenditure on other items.

Article 32

  1. Unless it contains any other stipulation, a law shall come into force on the expiry of eight days after the date of its publication in the national legal gazette or other official media.
  2. The manner and extent of the publication of laws, finance resolutions, treaties, regulations and resolutions of international organizations and of measures deriving from international treaties shall be regulated by law. For measures applicable in the principality by reason of international treaties, publication may be arranged in a simplified form, in particular as a reference publication to foreign law.

Chapter V: The Government

Article 33

  1. Subject to the provisions of this article, the whole state administration shall be conducted by the government responsible to the prince and the Supreme Council in conformity with the provisions of this constitution and the other laws.
  2. Specific functions may be transferred by law or by legally binding authorizations to individual officials, government offices, or special commissions for independent execution, subject to recourse to the government.

Article 34

  1. The government shall consist of the duke and the heads of four houses. The duke shall be granted personal, non-hereditary nobility once appointed to the office, which can be revoked by the prince.
  2. The duke and the heads of the four houses shall be appointed by the prince with the concurrence of the Supreme Council and on the proposal of the latter. A substitute shall be appointed in like manner for the duke and for each head of the houses to represent the member of government in question should he be able to attend the meetings of the government.
  3. The duke and the other members of the government shall swear the following oath to the Triune God and the prince: “In the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost. Amen. I, __________ a humble servant of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ and a faithful servant of the Reigning Prince, His Illustrious Highness __________ Prince of the Vlachs, swear in good faith on the four holy Gospels and the salvation of my eternal soul, that I will follow the state constitution of the Principality of Vlachia and be a faithful child of the Holy Mother Church, with no hidden intentions and to the best of my abilities help the development and welfare of all its citizens, not helping a friend nor retaliating against an enemy, never leading my people astray nor going against the laws of God and the spotless bride of Christ, the Holy Church. So help me God and his Holy Mother, the Holy Virgin conceived without sin and assumed into heaven, our God-bearer Mary to whose Immaculate Heart I completely consecrate myself and into whose merciful hands I give myself praying that she disposes of me and all that I possess to the eternal glory and praise of the Most Holy Trinity. Amen.”
  4. The period of office of the government shall be four years, subject to the provisions of Article 37.

Article 35

  1. The government is responsible for executing all the laws and for carrying out all the orders of the prince or of the Supreme Council which are permitted by law.
  2. The government shall issue decrees needed to implement the laws and treaties which are directly applicable, which can only be issued within the framework of the law and the treaties which are directly applicable.
  3. To realize other treaty obligations, the government can issue the necessary decrees as far as there is no need to issue a law.
  4. The whole state administration must act entirely within the framework of the constitution, the laws and the applicable treaties; in those matters where the law gives the administration the freedom to act on its own discretion, the framework stipulated by the law must also be strictly observed.

Article 36

The following matters in particular shall fall within the domain of the government:

  1. The supervision of the state administration.
  2. The appointment and dismissal of public servants with the exception of judges or public servants of the Supreme Council.
  3. The drawing up of the yearly budget and of the report on its activities for the past year, to be submitted annually to the prince and the Supreme Council.
  4. The drawing up of its rules of procedure, which are to be published.

Article 37

  1. If the government loses the confidence of the prince or of the Supreme Council, their authority to carry out government duties expires. Until a new government assumes office, the prince shall appoint a caretaker government to take care of the whole state administration. The prince can also appoint members of the old government. Within four months the caretaker government must receive a vote of confidence in the Supreme Council insofar as the prince has not appointed a new government with the concurrence of the Supreme Council and on the proposal of the latter (Article 34)
  2. If an individual member of the government loses the confidence of the prince, the decision about his deprival of office will be taken in concurrence between the prince and the Supreme Council. Until the appointment of a new member of government, his deputy must carry out his government duties.

Chapter VI: The Courts

A. General provisions

Article 38

  1. The whole administration of justice shall be carried out in the name of God and of the prince and his people by judges appointed by the prince (Article 8). Decisions and judgements by the judges are to be issued in the name of God, the prince and his people.
  2. The judges shall be independent when exercising their judicial office within the limits of the law and when engaged in juridical proceedings. Their decisions and judgements shall be accompanied by a statement of reasons. Only where the constitution expressly foresees it (Article 9) may the administration of justice be influenced by another state institution.
  3. Judges within the meaning of this article are the judges of all the normal courts (Articles 40 and 41), the judges of the administrative court (Article 42) as well as the judges of the constitutional court (Article 43).

Article 39

  1. For the selection of judges, the prince and the Supreme Council shall institute a joint committee. The prince shall preside and in the event of a tied vote shall have the casting vote. He can nominate as many members for this committee as the Supreme Council. The Supreme Council delegates one representative for each electoral group represented in the Supreme Council. The deliberations of the committee are confidential. The committee can only recommend candidates to the Supreme Council with the consent of the prince. If the Supreme Council elects the recommended candidate he shall then be appointed as judge by the prince.
  2. Should the Supreme Council reject the candidate recommended by the committee and there is no agreement on a new candidate within four weeks, then the Supreme Council has to present an opposing candidate and order a popular vote. In the case of a popular vote the citizens with voting rights can also nominate a candidate according to the procedures for an initiative (Article 29). Should there be more then two candidates, the popular vote will take place in two elections in accordance with Article 47. The candidate who has received the absolute majority of the votes shall be appointed as judge by the prince.
  3. A judge appointed for a set term remains in office until his successor is sworn in. Further detailed provisions concerning the procedure, the right of abstention, emoluments, and the fees to be paid by the parties involved shall be stipulated in a special law.
    B. The ordinary courts

Article 40

  1. Jurisdiction shall be exercised in the first instance by the district court, in the second instance by the high court of appeal and in the third instance by the supreme court.
  2. By law certain types of cases of the first instance can be delegated to civil servants of the district court who are specially trained and subject to directives.

Article 41.

The supreme court has disciplinary powers over the members of the normal courts and the civil servants of the courts.

C. The administrative courts

Article 42

  1. The administrative court consists of five judges an five substitute judges who were appointed by the prince (Article 39). The majority of the judges must be citizens of the country.
  2. The term of office of the judges and the substitute judges of the administrative court is five years. The term of office is to be structured in a way that every year the term of one judge and one substitute judge comes to an end. At the first appointment the term of office of the five judges and the five substitute judges is decided by lot. Should a judge or a substitute judge retire prematurely from office, his successor is to be appointed for the remaining term of office of the retiring judge. Re-election is possible.
  3. The five judges elect every year one of their members as a chairman and another as a deputy chairman.
  4. If a judge is unable to attend a meeting, a substitute judge will represent him in this case. From case to case substitution has to take place by rotation.
  5. Insofar as the law does not otherwise provide, all decisions and decrees of the government and of the commissions set up by the government (Article 33) can be appealed at the administrative court.

D. The constitutional court

Article 43

  1. The constitutional court serves to protect the rights accorded by the constitution and to decide in conflicts of competence between the courts and the state administration.
  2. The constitutional court also has the competence to determine whether laws and international treaties are in conformity with the constitution and whether the decrees of the government are in conformity with the laws; in cases where they are not in conformity, it may declare their annulment. It shall also act as an electoral tribunal.
  3. Otherwise the regulations of Article 42 apply accordingly.

Chapter VII: The Community and Administration

Article 44

Provisions concerning the organization and duties of the citizens in their own sphere of action and in tasks assigned to them shall be laid down by law.

  1. A group of citizens clustered near one another may establish a council of the community and freely elect a leader to represent them by the Supreme Council.
  2. It is the right of such a community to grant citizenship and the freedom of citizens to reside in any community.
  3. The community may raise taxes (Article 3) and to administer the assets of the community.

Article 45

  1. The state, the citizens and other corporations, establishments and foundations of public law are liable for damage caused to third persons by individuals acting as their agents who act illegally in their official capacity.
  2. Individuals acting as agents are answerable to the state, the citizens, the establishment, the foundation or to other corporations of public law which they serve for any damage directly caused to such bodies through the willful or grossly negligent breach of their official duties.
  3. Further detailed provisions, especially those relating to the competence, shall be laid down in a separate law.

Chapter VIII: Maintenance of the Constitution

Article 46

Amendments or generally binding interpretations of the constitution can be proposed either by the prince, the Supreme Council or the government, or can be made through the procedure of an initiative (Article 29). They require on the part of the Supreme Council approval either by unanimous vote of the representatives present or by a majority of three-quarters of the representatives present at two successive sittings of the Supreme Council and if required a popular vote (Article 30). In such case the approval of the price is necessary.

Article 47

  1. At least 5 percent of the citizens with voting rights can introduce an initiative to change the constitution. Should the initiative be accepted in a popular vote, the Supreme Council has to formulate a new constitution and to order at the earliest after one year and at the latest two years a popular vote. The prince has the right to propose a new constitution for the same popular vote. The procedure for changing the constitution in Article 46 is replaced in this case by the following procedure.
  2. If there is only one proposal, an absolute majority is sufficient for acceptance (Article 30). If there are two proposals, each citizen with voting rights has the option of choosing between the existing constitution and the two proposals. In this case the citizen with voting rights shall have two votes in the first round of voting. He shall give those two votes to the two variants which he wishes to put to the second vote. Those two variants of the constitution which have received the most first and second votes shall be the subjects of the second round of voting. In the second vote which must take place fourteen days after the first vote, each citizen with voting rights shall have one vote. The constitution which has received the absolute majority of the votes is accepted (Article 30).

Chapter IX: Final Provisions

All laws, decrees and statutory provisions which contradict any expressed provision of this constitution are hereby revoked and declared invalid; legal provisions which are inconsistent with the spirit of this fundamental law shall be revised to conform with the constitution.

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